## Abstract

Quantum fluctuations in the background geometry of a black hole are shown to affect the propagation of matter states falling into the black hole in a foliation that corresponds to observations purely outside the horizon. A state that starts as a Minkowski vacuum at past null infinity gets entangled with the gravity sector, so that close to the horizon it can be represented by a statistical ensemble of orthogonal states. We construct an operator connecting the different states and comment on the possible physical meaning of the above construction. The induced energy-momentum tensor of these states is computed in the neighbourhood of the horizon, and it is found that energy-momentum fluctuations become large in the region where the bulk of the Hawking radiation is produced. The background spacetime as seen by an outside observer may be drastically altered in this region, and an outside observer should see significant interactions between the infalling matter and the outgoing Hawking radiation. The boundary of the region of strong quantum gravitational effects is given by a time-like hypersurface of constant Schwarzschild radius r one Planck unit away from the horizon. This boundary hypersurface is an example of a stretched horizon.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 377-401 |

Number of pages | 25 |

Journal | Nuclear Physics B |

Volume | 456 |

Issue number | 1-2 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 4 Dec 1995 |

Externally published | Yes |

### Bibliographical note

Funding Information:The standard derivation of the Hawking radiation of a black hole involves the propagation of free fields on an idealised collapsing black hole background \[l \]. This simple calculation indicates that black holes evaporate through approximately thermal radiation. Unless there are subtle correlations between the matter that forms the black hole and the *This work was supported in part by funds provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (D.O.E.) under cooperative agreement DE-FC02-94ER40818, and in part by the National Science Foundation, I E-mail: gill@mitlns.mit.edu. 2 E-mail: mortiz@cosmos2.phy.tufls.edu.

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Nuclear and High Energy Physics