Psychometric development of the Problematic Pornography Use Scale

Ariel Kor, Sigal Zilcha-Mano, Yehuda A. Fogel, Mario Mikulincer, Rory C. Reid, Marc N. Potenza

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Despite the increased social acceptance and widespread use of pornography over the past few decades, reliable and valid instruments assessing problematic use of pornography are lacking. This paper reports the findings of three studies aimed at developing and validating a new scale measuring problematic pornography use. The Problematic Pornography Use Scale (PPUS) items showed high internal consistency, convergent validity, and construct validity. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed four core factors relating to proposed domains of problematic pornography use. High PPUS scores were positively correlated with measures of psychopathology, low self-esteem and poor attachment. Although PPUS scores were related to other behavioral addictions, problematic pornography use as operationalized in the current paper appears to be uniquely distinguished from features of behavioral addictions relating to gambling and Internet use. Findings highlight the potential use of the PPUS for future research and possible clinical applications by defining problematic pornography use as a behavioral addiction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)861-868
Number of pages8
JournalAddictive Behaviors
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2014
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Dr. Potenza has consulted for Lundbeck and Ironwood pharmaceuticals; has had financial interests in Somaxon pharmaceuticals; received research support from Mohegan Sun Casino , Psyadon Pharmaceuticals , the National Center for Responsible Gambling , and the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Veterans Administration ; has participated in surveys, mailings, or telephone consultations related to drug addiction, impulse-control disorders, or other health topics; has consulted for gambling, legal and governmental entities on issues related to addictions or impulse-control disorders; has provided clinical care in the Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services Problem Gambling Services Program; has performed grant reviews for the NIH and other agencies; has guest edited journal sections; has given academic lectures in grand rounds, Continuing Medical Education events, and other clinical or scientific venues; and has generated books or book chapters for publishers of mental health texts.

Funding Information:
This research was funded in part by the Connecticut Mental Health Center and the Yale Gambling Center of Research Excellence Award grant from the National Center for Responsible Gaming . The funding agencies did not provide input or comment on the content of the manuscript, and the content of the manuscript reflects the contributions and thoughts of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the funding agencies.


  • Addiction
  • Pornography
  • Pornography Scale

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Toxicology


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