Principals' views and practices regarding inclusion: The case of Israeli elementary school principals

Gilada Avissar, Shunit Reiter, Yona Leyser

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Mainstreaming/inclusion is one of the more complex changes on the current educational scene. The goal of this research study was to examine the school principal as the leading figure in implementing inclusion and to characterize his/her role as a change agent. The variables explored were the principal's educational vision and the inclusive practices in school. A sample of 110 elementary school principals in Israel were studied. The Israeli Special Education Law of 1988 and the ongoing regulations issued by the Ministry of Education include provisions requiring mainstreaming. Several different instruments were used. The main findings were as follows: principals were found to perceive the expected social success of main-streamed students higher than their expected educational success; the severity of the disability affected their perception and how they forecast success; a variety of inclusive educational placements were noted in the schools; several background variables, namely age, level of education and in-service training, were related to principals' views and practices regarding inclusion. The findings are meaningful to the understanding of the effects of inclusion and have implications for in-service training for principals.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)355-369
    Number of pages15
    JournalEuropean Journal of Special Needs Education
    Issue number3
    StatePublished - Oct 2003


    • Change
    • Inclusion
    • Leadership
    • Mainstreaming
    • Perception
    • Practice
    • Principals

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Education
    • Health Professions (miscellaneous)
    • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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