Mass-spectrometry (MS) assays detect lower levels of monoclonal proteins and result in earlier detection of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). We examined heavy chain MGUS prevalence using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS among 3 risk groups, ages 50 or older: 327 African Americans (AA) and 1223 European Americans (EA) from a clinical biobank and 1093 unaffected first-degree relatives (FDR) of patients with hematologic disorders. Age- and sex-adjusted prevalence rates were directly standardized to 2010 United States population. Prevalence ratios were estimated for comparisons of AA and FDR to the EA group using the Poisson distribution. Results were also compared with population-based prevalence using conventional gel-based methods. Risk groups had similar sex and age distributions. MALDI-TOF MGUS prevalence was higher in the AA (16.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 12.2%, 20.8%]) and FDR (18.3% [95% CI, 16.6%, 21.6%]) than in EA (10.8% [95% CI, 8.8%, 12.7%]), translating to prevalence ratios of 1.73 (95% CI, 1.31, 2.29) and 1.90 (95% CI, 1.55, 2.34), respectively. MALDI-TOF EA prevalence was over threefold higher than conventional estimates but showed similar age trends. Thus, the MALDI-TOF assay found greater numbers with MGUS but similar relative differences by race, family history, and age as prior studies.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding for this article was provided by the Mayo MM SPORE NCI (CA186781), Mayo MM SPORE P50 CA186781, R01 CA168762 and the Mayo Clinic Cancer Center.
© 2022 by The American Society of Hematology.
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