In the Red Sea, the zooxanthellate sponge Cliona vastifica (Hancock) is mainly present at > 15 m depth or in shaded areas. To test whether its scarcity in unshaded areas of shallower waters is linked to the functional inefficiency of its photosymbionts at high irradiances, sponges were transferred from 30 m to a six times higher light regime at 12 m depth, and then returned to their original location. During this time, photosynthetic responses to irradiance were measured as rapid light curves (RLCs) in situ by pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry using a portable underwater device, and samples were taken for microscopic determinations of zooxanthellar abundance. The zooxanthellae harboured by this sponge adapted to the higher irradiance at 12 m by increasing both their light saturation points and relative photosynthetic electron transport rates (ETRs). The ETRs at light saturation increased almost fourfold within 15-20 days of transfer to the shallower water, and decreased back to almost their original values after the sponges were returned to 30 m depth. This, as well as the fact that the photosynthetic light responses within an individual sponge were in accordance with the irradiance incident to specific surfaces, shows that these photosymbionts are highly adaptable to various irradiances. There was no significant change in the number of zooxanthellae per sponge area throughout these experiments, and the different photosynthetic responses were likely due to adaptations of the photosynthetic apparatus within each zooxanthella. In conclusion, it seems that parameters other than the hypothesised inability of the photosymbionts to adapt adequately to high light conditions are the cause of C. vastifica's rareness in unshaded shallow areas of the Red Sea.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Aquatic Science