Plants developed various reversible and non-reversible acclimation mechanisms to cope with the multifaceted nature of abiotic-stress combinations. We hypothesized that in order to endure these stress combinations, plants elicit distinctive acclimation strategies through specific trade-offs between reproduction and defense. To investigate Brachypodium distachyon acclimation strategies to combinations of salinity, drought and heat, we applied a system biology approach, integrating physiological, metabolic, and transcriptional analyses. We analyzed the trade-offs among functional and performance traits, and their effects on plant fitness. A combination of drought and heat resulted in escape strategy, while under a combination of salinity and heat, plants exhibited an avoidance strategy. On the other hand, under combinations of salinity and drought, with or without heat stress, plant fitness (i.e., germination rate of subsequent generation) was severely impaired. These results indicate that under combined stresses, plants’ life-history strategies were shaped by the limits of phenotypic and metabolic plasticity and the trade-offs between traits, thereby giving raise to distinct acclimations. Our findings provide a mechanistic understanding of plant acclimations to combinations of abiotic stresses and shed light on the different life-history strategies that can contribute to grass fitness and possibly to their dispersion under changing environments.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2019 The Authors. Plant Direct published by American Society of Plant Biologists, Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
- abiotic-stress combinations
- life-history strategy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
- Plant Science