Patchy distribution fields: Survey design and adequacy of reconstruction

I. Kalikhman, I. Ostrovsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A mathematical model (Kriging) was used to examine the effects of acoustic survey design on the adequacy of reconstruction of patchy distribution fields. The model simulates fish (or plankton) patches of different shapes and spatial orientations, and an acoustic survey by parallel transects. For a series of mathematical experiments, the patchy fields were reconstructed using simulated survey data. Conformity of the reconstructed fields to those originally generated was evaluated by calculating their correlations. The experiments indicate that a survey in the direction of patch elongation gives best results. The optimal ratio of the distance between transects to the autocorrelation radius for the field in the direction of surveying has been determined. Lack of a priori information on patch orientation may considerably reduce the quality of survey design. A posteriori determination of patch orientation allows reconstruction of the best field, attainable on the basis of the data from the survey conducted. In addition, surveys of moving patches are considered.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)809-818
Number of pages10
JournalICES Journal of Marine Science
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1997
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank Drs P. D. Walline, C. Hollingworth, E. J. Simmonds and D. N. MacLennan for their suggestions and remarks, which we used in our study. We are grateful to the three anonymous reviewers and the Assistant Editor S. J. Smith for their constructive criticism which allowed us to improve the manuscript substantially. We are also grateful to the Rich Foundation and the US Agency for International Development (AID) whose financial support made this study possible.


  • Acoustic survey design
  • Anisotropy
  • Autocorrelation radius
  • Coefficient of determination
  • Conformity
  • Distance between transects
  • Kriging
  • Patchy distribution field
  • Reconstruction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Aquatic Science
  • Ecology


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