Participation Patterns of Adolescents with and without Executive Function Deficits: Parents’ Perspectives

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This study examines parents’ perspectives of the participation patterns (frequency, involvement, and parental desire for change) in their adolescent children’s everyday functioning with and without executive function deficit profiles. Parents of 81 adolescents (10–14) years) with executive function deficits (n = 41) and a matched group of parents of adolescents with typical development (n = 40) completed the Participation and Environment Measure for Children and Youth (PEM-CY) questionnaire. The questionnaire includes the adolescents’ participation frequency and involvement in common everyday functions in three environments (home, school, and community) and parental desire for change. Parents of adolescents with executive function deficits reported that their children participated significantly less (in frequency and involvement) in many activities within each environment than parents of typically developing adolescents reported. Additional significant group differences were evident, particularly when comparing parental desires to change their adolescent children’s participation. Each environment’s characteristics regarding the structure level and different activity demands are discussed as a possible reason for these differences in participation. The challenges and complexity of raising a child with everyday functioning difficulties might be one reason for the differences in parents’ desire for change.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)325-342
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Occupational Therapy, Schools, and Early Intervention
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Taylor & Francis.


  • Everyday functioning
  • activity demands
  • desire to change
  • frequency
  • level of involvement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Education
  • Occupational Therapy


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