Palaeoenvironmental evolution of cenote aktun ha (Carwash) on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico and its response to holocene sea-level rise

Jeremy J. Gabriel, Eduard G. Reinhardt, Peter J. van Hengstum, Patricia A. Beddows, Matthew C. Peros, Dawn E. Davidson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A 61-cm core was obtained from 4 m below the water table in Cenote Aktun Ha, on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. The cenote is 8.6 km from the Caribbean coast and its formation and evolution have been largely affected by sea-level change. The base of the core dates to 6,940-6,740 cal year BP and overlying sediments were deposited rapidly over the subsequent ~200 years. The pollen record shows that the cenote evolved from a marsh dominated by red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) and fern (Polypodiaceae) to an open-water system. These vegetation changes were controlled by water level and salinity and are thus useful indicators of past sea level. At the base, the δ13Corg isotopic ratios reveal the influence of terrestrial vegetation (-29‰ VPDB), but shift to more negative values up-core (-33‰), indicating an influence from particulate matter in the flooded cenote pool. Although microfossil populations were nearly absent through most of the core, the microfossil assemblage in the upper 6 cm of the core is dominated by the juvenile foraminifer Ammonia tepida and the thecamoebian genus Centropyxis. These populations indicate openwater conditions in the cenote and a major environmental shift around 6,600 cal year BP, which is related to sea-level rise in the Caribbean basin. These data fit well with previously established sea-level curves for the Caribbean Sea. Our reconstruction of the environmental history of Cenote Aktun Ha helps elucidate the floral and hydrological history of the region, and highlights the utility of cenote sediments for studying the Holocene sea-level history of the Caribbean Sea.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)199-213
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Paleolimnology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jul 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Cave
  • Cenote
  • Foraminifera
  • Holocene sea level
  • Mangrove
  • Thecamoebians

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aquatic Science
  • Earth-Surface Processes


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