Many one-hole stone anchors have been found around the eastern Mediterranean, in Kaş (Uluburun, Gelidonia), Antalya, Ugarit, Byblos, Kition, the Carmel coast, Caesarea, Ashkelon, Alexandria, etc. They are of varying sizes, weighing from a few to hundreds of kilograms. Apart from the single hole, they have another common attribute – they all fell within a certain range of geometrical proportions, one of which was the length to thickness ratio of about 4.2:1. The hole in the upper part of such an anchor increases the susceptibility of the anchor to mechanical failure. Sensitivity to three major modes of failure – tension, shear and bending, was analysed. It was found most broken anchors seem to have failed by bending. Such failure could be incurred either during service life on a ship or in secondary use on land. It was also found that for three-hole composite anchors, the average length to thickness ratio was about 5.5:1, meaning that for a given face area they were relatively thinner and lighter. In addition, they were smaller in face area, and thus had about 25%–50% greater holding power, and posed less handling risk to ship and crew than the one-hole type.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by a Sir Maurice Hatter Fellowship. The authors would like to thank M. Bram and E. Itzhack for their technical support, E. Galili for kind permission to use Fig. 5 , and J. B. Tresman for the English editing. The anonymous reviewers deserve special thanks.
© 2021 Elsevier Ltd
- Bending stress
- Bronze Age
- Mechanical failure
- Stone anchors
ASJC Scopus subject areas