Occupational exposures and symptoms among firefighters and police during the carmel forest fire: The carmel cohort study

Eric D. Amster, Shahar S. Fertig, Uri Baharal, Shai Linn, Manfred S. Green, Zvi Lencovsky, Rafael S. Carel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: From 2 to 5 December 2010, Israel experienced the most severe forest fire in its history, resulting in the deaths of 44 rescue workers. Little research exists on the health risks to emergency responders during forest fires, and there is no published research to date on occupational health among firefighters in Israel. Objectives: To describe the exposures experienced by emergency responders to smoke, fire retardants and stress; the utilization of protective equipment; and the frequency of corresponding symptoms during and following the Carmel Forest fire. Methods: A cohort of 204 firefighters and 68 police who took part in rescue and fire-abating activities during the Carmel Forest fire were recruited from a representative sample of participating stations throughout the country and interviewed regarding their activities during the fire and their coinciding symptoms. Unpaired two-sample t-test compared mean exposures and symptom frequency for firefighters and police. Chi-square estimates of OR and 95%CI are provided for odds of reporting symptoms, incurring injury or being hospitalized for various risk factors. Results: Of the study participants, 87% reported having at least one symptom during rescue work at the Carmel Forest fire, with eye irritation (77%) and fatigue (71%) being the most common. Occupational stress was extremely high during the fire; the average length of time working without rest was 18.4 hours among firefighters. Conclusions: Firefighters and police were exposed to smoke and occupational stress for prolonged periods during the fire. Further research is needed on the residual health effects from exposure to forest fires among emergency responders, and to identify areas for improvement in health preparedness.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)288-292
Number of pages5
JournalIsrael Medical Association Journal
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2013


  • Carmel forest
  • Firefighters
  • Forest fire
  • Occupational health
  • Police
  • Smoke exposure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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