Non-parametric temporal modeling of the hemodynamic response function via a liquid state machine

Paolo Avesani, Hananel Hazan, Ester Koilis, Larry M. Manevitz, Diego Sona

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Standard methods for the analysis of functional MRI data strongly rely on prior implicit and explicit hypotheses made to simplify the analysis. In this work the attention is focused on two such commonly accepted hypotheses: (i) the hemodynamic response function (HRF) to be searched in the BOLD signal can be described by a specific parametric model e.g., double-gamma; (ii) the effect of stimuli on the signal is taken to be linearly additive. While these assumptions have been empirically proven to generate high sensitivity for statistical methods, they also limit the identification of relevant voxels to what is already postulated in the signal, thus not allowing the discovery of unknown correlates in the data due to the presence of unexpected hemodynamics. This paper tries to overcome these limitations by proposing a method wherein the HRF is learned directly from data rather than induced from its basic form assumed in advance. This approach produces a set of voxel-wise models of HRF and, as a result, relevant voxels are filterable according to the accuracy of their prediction in a machine learning framework.This approach is instantiated using a temporal architecture based on the paradigm of Reservoir Computing wherein a Liquid State Machine is combined with a decoding Feed-Forward Neural Network. This splits the modeling into two parts: first a representation of the complex temporal reactivity of the hemodynamic response is determined by a universal global "reservoir" which is essentially temporal; second an interpretation of the encoded representation is determined by a standard feed-forward neural network, which is trained by the data. Thus the reservoir models the temporal state of information during and following temporal stimuli in a feed-back system, while the neural network "translates" this data to fit the specific HRF response as given, e.g. by BOLD signal measurements in fMRI.An empirical analysis on synthetic datasets shows that the learning process can be robust both to noise and to the varying shape of the underlying HRF. A similar investigation on real fMRI datasets provides evidence that BOLD predictability allows for discrimination between relevant and irrelevant voxels for a given set of stimuli.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)61-73
Number of pages13
JournalNeural Networks
Volume70
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2015

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to thank Emanuele Olivetti (NILab, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Trento, Italy) for the implementation of Balloon model used in synthetic data production. We thank the Caesarea Rothschild Institute of the University of Haifa and the Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Trento, for partial support of this work. The authors are listed in alphabetical order. Some of this work serves as part of the M.Sc. thesis in computer science of Ester Koilis under the advisorship of Larry Manevitz at the Neurocomputation Laboratory located at the Caesarea Rothschild Institute at the University of Haifa.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Keywords

  • FMRI
  • HRF modeling
  • Liquid state machines
  • Machine learning
  • Neural networks
  • Reservoir computing
  • Temporal modeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Artificial Intelligence

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