New insights regarding the Akko 1 shipwreck: A metallurgic and petrographic investigation of the cannonballs

E. D. Mentovich, D. S. Schreiber, Y. Goren, Y. Kahanov, H. Goren, D. Cvikel, D. Ashkenazi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The Akko 1 shipwreck constitutes the remains of a small Mediterranean naval vessel, discovered in Akko harbour, Israel, and excavated over three seasons between 2006 and 2008. Among the finds at the shipwreck site were eleven cannonballs. Two of them, a 9-pdr and a 24-pdr, were retrieved and studied using metallurgical and petrographic methods. The examination of the cast-iron was performed with optical microscopy, SEM-EDS, XRF and microhardness tests. The remains of the casting sand from within the voids in both cannonballs were studied by petrography. Combined with the archaeological evidence and the historical background, the metallurgical and petrographic testing may suggest that Akko 1 was a warship or an auxiliary naval vessel of similar size to, or slightly smaller than, sixth rate, and was in Akko harbour circa 1840.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2520-2528
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Archaeological Science
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2010

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The underwater excavation and research of the Akko 1 shipwreck were supported by Ron Marlar, Yaacov Salomon Foundation , Halpern Foundation , Sir Maurice Hatter Fellowship , Hecht Trust , Jewish National Fund , anonymous donors, the President, the Rector, Dean and Faculty of Humanities, University of Haifa, to whom we are grateful.


  • Akko 1 shipwreck
  • Archaeometallurgy
  • Cast-iron
  • Metallography
  • Petrography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Archaeology
  • Archaeology


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