Introduction: Until now, the most likely direct maternal progenitor (AABB) for common wheat (AABBDD) has yet to be identified. Here, we try to solve this particular problem with the specificity of a novel gene family in wheat and by using large population of rare germplasm resources. Objectives: Dissect the novelty of TaCAF1Ia subfamily in wheat. Exploit the conservative and specific characteristics of TaCAF1Ia1 to reveal the origin of the maternal progenitor for common wheat. Methods: Phylogenetic and collinear analysis of TaCAF1 genes were performed to identify the evolutionary specificity of TaCAF1Ia subfamily. The large-scale expression patterns and interaction patterns analysis of CCR4-NOT complex were used to clarify the expressed and structural specificity of TaCAF1Ia subfamily in wheat. The population resequencing and phylogeny analysis of the TaCAF1Ia1 were utilized for the traceability analysis to understand gene-pool exchanges during the transferring and subsequent development from tetraploid to hexaploidy wheat. Results: TaCAF1Ia is a novel non-typical CAF1 subfamily without DEDD (Asp-Glu-Asp-Asp) domain, whose members were extensively duplicated in wheat genome. The replication events had started and constantly evolved from ancestor species. Specifically, it was found that a key member CAF1Ia1 was highly specialized and only existed in the subB genome and S genome. Unlike CAF1s reported in other plants, TaCAF1Ia genes may be new factors for anther development. These atypical TaCAF1s could also form CCR4-NOT complex in wheat but with new interaction sites. Utilizing the particular but conserved characteristics of the TaCAF1Ia1 gene, the comparative analysis of haplotypes composition for TaCAF1Ia1 were identified among wheat populations with different ploidy levels. Based on this, the dual-lineages origin model of maternal progenitor for common wheat and potential three-lineages domestication model for cultivated tetraploid wheat were proposed. Conclusion: This study brings fresh insights for revealing the origin of wheat and the function of CAF1 in plants.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the China Agriculture Research System of MOF and MARA (CARS-5), Accurate Identification of the Wheat Germplasm Resources in the Mid-lower Reaches of Yangtze River (19211092), National Key Research and Development Program of China ( 2016YFD0100502 ), National Natural Science Foundation of China ( 31601294 ) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation ( 2015M582241 ). We also thank the Ancell-Teicher Research Foundation for Molecular Evolution for funding Triticum dicoccoides studies. The funding agencies had no role in the design of the study, in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data, and in the writing of the manuscript.
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