Neural-endocrine-immune complex in the central modulation of tumorigenesis: Facts, assumptions, and hypotheses

Boris Mravec, Yori Gidron, Barbara Kukanova, Jozef Bizik, Alexander Kiss, Ivan Hulin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


For the precise coordination of systemic functions, the nervous system uses a variety of peripherally and centrally localized receptors, which transmit information from internal and external environments to the central nervous system. Tight interconnections between the immune, nervous, and endocrine systems provide a base for monitoring and consequent modulation of immune system functions by the brain and vice versa. The immune system plays an important role in tumorigenesis. On the basis of rich interconnections between the immune, nervous and endocrine systems, the possibility that the brain may be informed about tumorigenesis is discussed in this review article. Moreover, the eventual modulation of tumorigenesis by central nervous system is also considered. Prospective consequences of the interactions between tumor and brain for diagnosis and therapy of cancer are emphasized.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)104-116
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Neuroimmunology
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Nov 2006
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank MD. Peter Ujhazy, PhD for valuable contributions. This work was supported by Grant of Comenius University UK/40/2006.


  • Autonomic nervous system
  • Brain
  • Cytokines
  • Tumorigenesis
  • Vagus nerve

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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