Natural Products and Pharmacological Properties of Symbiotic Bacillota (Firmicutes) of Marine Macroalgae

Uche M. Chukwudulue, Natalia Barger, Michael Dubovis, Tal Luzzatto Knaan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The shift from the terrestrial to the marine environment to discover natural products has given rise to novel bioactive compounds, some of which have been approved for human medicine. However, the ocean, which makes up nearly three-quarters of the Earth’s surface, contains macro- and microorganisms whose natural products are yet to be explored. Among these underexplored marine organisms are macroalgae and their symbiotic microbes, such as Bacillota, a phylum of mostly Gram-positive bacteria previously known as Firmicutes. Macroalgae-associated Bacillota often produce chemical compounds that protect them and their hosts from competitive and harmful rivals. Here, we summarised the natural products made by macroalgae-associated Bacillota and their pharmacological properties. We discovered that these Bacillota are efficient producers of novel biologically active molecules. However, only a few macroalgae had been investigated for chemical constituents of their Bacillota: nine brown, five red and one green algae. Thus, Bacillota, especially from the marine habitat, should be investigated for potential pharmaceutical leads. Moreover, additional diverse biological assays for the isolated molecules of macroalgae Bacillota should be implemented to expand their bioactivity profiles, as only antibacterial properties were tested for most compounds.

Original languageEnglish
Article number569
JournalMarine Drugs
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • Bacillota
  • Firmicutes
  • biological properties
  • macroalgae
  • natural products
  • pharmacological activities
  • seaweeds
  • secondary metabolites

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics (miscellaneous)


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