Nearly every country is associated with both positive and negative generalizations and stereotypes. Despite the fact that stereotypes can be a serious barrier to the arrival of tourists and investors, comprehensive studies focused on repair strategies chosen by marketers have rarely been conducted to date. Using the “multi-step model for altering place image,” which belongs to the image repair theory, the aim of this study is to examine the strategies that countries around the world have used to deal with negative perceptions and stereotypes. This examination made use of quantitative and qualitative content analysis of seventy ads produced in forty-seven countries, including print ads, TV commercials and YouTube videos. The analysis shows the use of three kinds of strategies by marketers to combat national stereotypes: source (personal testimony, blaming the media), message (expanding a narrow image, use of celebrities) and audience (emphasis on similar values, cultural symbols and geography, changing the target audience).
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© 2018 Elsevier Inc.
- Combatting national stereotypes
- Destination marketing
- Image repair
- Nation branding
- Tourism crisis
ASJC Scopus subject areas