Multi-layered entrepreneurship: perspectives of women candidates for mayor

Osnat Akirav, Arie Hershkovici, Limor Yehuda, Sagit Barel-Shaked, Labib Shami, Gil Cohen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In the last two decades, the number of women involved in politics locally and nationally has increased worldwide. In addition, researchers have begun to incorporate a gender perspective into all public policies so that they counter gender bias and produce gender equality in politics and society. In accordance with this new approach, we combined three research fields-women's entrepreneurship, their political ambition and gender mainstreaming. We argue that the mutual effect the research fields have creates a new way to define and operationalise entrepreneurship, which we call multi-layered entrepreneurship. To test our model, we conducted in-depth interviews with women candidates for mayor in various peripheral areas in Israel. We found that women define entrepreneurship in a more comprehensive and inclusive manner than men. While they have political ambition, their motives for entering politics differ somewhat from those of men. Finally, the effect of their political ambition on gender mainstreaming strengthens the need for a gender perspective in all public policies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)218-237
Number of pages20
JournalInternational Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2024
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
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  • Galilee and South peripheries
  • gender mainstreaming
  • local government
  • multi-layered entrepreneurship
  • women political ambition
  • women's entrepreneurship

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business and International Management
  • Economics and Econometrics


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