Multi-Interacting Natural and Anthropogenic Stressors on Freshwater Ecosystems: Their Current Status and Future Prospects for 21st Century

Doru Bănăduc, Angela Curtean-Bănăduc, Sophia Barinova, Verónica L. Lozano, Sergey Afanasyev, Tamara Leite, Paulo Branco, Daniel F. Gomez Isaza, Juergen Geist, Aristoteles Tegos, Horea Olosutean, Kevin Cianfanglione

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The inheritance of historic human-induced disruption and the fierceness of its impact change aquatic ecosystems. This work reviews some of the main stressors on freshwater ecosystems, focusing on their effects, threats, risks, protection, conservation, and management elements. An overview is provided on the water protection linked to freshwater stressors: solar ultraviolet radiation, thermal pollution, nanoparticles, radioactive pollution, salinization, nutrients, sedimentation, drought, extreme floods, fragmentation, pesticides, war and terrorism, algal blooms, invasive aquatic plants, riparian vegetation, and invasive aquatic fish. Altogether, these stressors build an exceptionally composite background of stressors that are continuously changing freshwater ecosystems and diminishing or even destroying their capability to create and maintain ongoing natural healthy products and essential services to humans. Environmental and human civilization sustainability cannot exist without the proper management of freshwater ecosystems all over the planet; this specific management is impossible if the widespread studied stressors are not deeply understood structurally and functionally. Without considering each of these stressors and their synergisms, the Earth’s freshwater is doomed in terms of both quantitative and qualitative aspects.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1483
JournalWater (Switzerland)
Issue number11
StatePublished - Jun 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 by the authors.


  • freshwater
  • management
  • natural and anthropogenic stressors
  • risks
  • threats

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Aquatic Science
  • Water Science and Technology


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