Modelling the biogeochemical effects of heterotrophic and autotrophic N2 fixation in the Gulf of Aqaba (Israel), Red Sea

Angela M. Kuhn, Katja Fennel, Ilana Berman-Frank

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Recent studies demonstrate that marine N 2 fixation can be carried out without light by heterotrophic N 2 fixers (diazotrophs). However, direct measurements of N 2 fixation in aphotic environments are relatively scarce. Heterotrophic as well as unicellular and colonial photoautotrophic diazotrophs are present in the oligotrophic Gulf of Aqaba (northern Red Sea). This study evaluates the relative importance of these different diazotrophs by combining biogeochemical models with time series measurements at a 700m deep monitoring station in the Gulf of Aqaba. At this location, an excess of nitrate, relative to phosphate, is present throughout most of the water column and especially in deep waters during stratified conditions. A relative excess of phosphate occurs only at the water surface during nutrient-starved conditions in summer. We show that a model without N 2 fixation can replicate the observed surface chlorophyll but fails to accurately simulate inorganic nutrient concentrations throughout the water column. Models with N 2 fixation improve simulated deep nitrate by enriching sinking organic matter in nitrogen, suggesting that N 2 fixation is necessary to explain the observations. The observed vertical structure of nutrient ratios and oxygen is reproduced best with a model that includes heterotrophic as well as colonial and unicellular autotrophic diazotrophs. These results suggest that heterotrophic N2 fixation contributes to the observed excess nitrogen in deep water at this location. If heterotrophic diazotrophs are generally present in oligotrophic ocean regions, their consideration would increase current estimates of global N 2 fixation and may require explicit representation in large-scale models.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7379-7401
Number of pages23
Issue number24
StatePublished - 14 Dec 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Author(s) 2018.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Earth-Surface Processes


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