Patterns of diurnal activity differ substantially between individuals, with early risers and late sleepers being examples of opposite chronotypes. Growing evidence suggests that the late chronotype significantly impacts the risk of developing mood disorders, obesity, diabetes, and other chronic diseases. Despite the vast potential of utilizing chronotype information for precision medicine, those factors that shape chronotypes remain poorly understood. Here, we assessed whether the various chronotypes are associated with different gut microbiome compositions. Using metagenomic sequencing analysis, we established a distinct signature associated with chronotype based on two bacterial genera, Alistipes (elevated in “larks”) and Lachnospira (elevated in “owls”). We identified three metabolic pathways associated with the early chronotype, and linked distinct dietary patterns with different chronotypes. Our work demonstrates an association between the gut microbiome and chronotype and may represent the first step towards developing dietary interventions aimed at ameliorating the deleterious health correlates of the late chronotype.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank two anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments. We thank Bengisu Sezen Suba?? for her technical assistance and the N.G.-Z. lab for discussions and help. This study was supported by a research grant from the Technion ? University of Haifa joint projects funded by the Milgrom family to E.T., T.S. and N.G.-Z. and the Israel Science Foundation (grant 1737/17 to E.T.). N.G.-Z. was supported by CIFAR (Azrieli-Global Scholar), the Technion, ?Hanasi?, ?Cathedra?, ?Alon? and ?Horev? fellowships and the Human Frontiers Science Program (HFSP CDA00025/2019-C).
We thank two anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments. We thank Bengisu Sezen Subaşı for her technical assistance and the N.G.‐Z. lab for discussions and help. This study was supported by a research grant from the Technion – University of Haifa joint projects funded by the Milgrom family to E.T., T.S. and N.G.‐Z. and the Israel Science Foundation (grant 1737/17 to E.T.). N.G.‐Z. was supported by CIFAR (Azrieli‐Global Scholar), the Technion, “Hanasi”, “Cathedra”, “Alon” and “Horev” fellowships and the Human Frontiers Science Program (HFSP CDA00025/2019‐C).
© 2021 The Authors. The FASEB Journal published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology.
- circadian clock
- gut microbiome
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology