Metacognition and mindreading: Judgments of learning for Self and Other during self-paced study

Asher Koriat, Rakefet Ackerman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The relationship between metacognition and mindreading was investigated by comparing the monitoring of one's own learning (Self) and another person's learning (Other). Previous studies indicated that in self-paced study judgments of learning (JOLs) for oneself are inversely related to the amount of study time (ST) invested in each item. This suggested reliance on the memorizing-effort heuristic that shorter ST is diagnostic of better recall. In this study although an inverse ST-JOL relationship was observed for Self, it was found for Other only when the Other condition followed the Self condition. The results were interpreted in terms of the proposal that the processes underlying experience-based metacognitive judgments are largely unconscious. However, participants can derive insight from observing themselves as they monitor their own learning, and transfer that insight to Other, thus exhibiting a shift from experience-based to theory-based judgments. Although different processes mediate metacognition and mindreading, metacognition can inform mindreading.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)251-264
Number of pages14
JournalConsciousness and Cognition
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2010

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work is supported by National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (2015AA015403), National Natural Science Foundation of China (61371129, 61572245), Key Program of Social Science foundation of China (12&ZD227).


  • Judgments of learning
  • Metacognition
  • Mindreading
  • Monitoring and control
  • Theory of mind

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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