Mending metacognitive illusions: A comparison of mnemonic-based and theory-based procedures

Asher Koriat, Robert A. Bjork

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Previous research indicated that learners experience an illusion of competence during learning (termed foresight bias) because judgments of learning (JOLs) are made in the presence of information that will be absent at test. The authors examined the following 2 procedures for alleviating foresight bias: enhancing learners' sensitivity to mnemonic cues pertaining to ease of retrieval and inducing learners to resort to theory-based judgments as a basis for JOLs. Both procedures proved effective in mending metacognitive illusions - as reflected in JOLs and self-regulation of study time - but only theory-based debiasing yielded transfer to new items. The results support the notion that improved metacognition is 1 key to optimizing transfer but also that educating subjective experience does not guarantee generalization to new situations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1133-1145
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2006


  • Foresight bias
  • Illusions of competence
  • Judgments of learning (JOLs)
  • Metacognition
  • Transfer of learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Language and Linguistics
  • Linguistics and Language


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