Measuring cognitive and affective Theory of Mind with the Italian Yoni task: normative data and short versions

Sara Isernia, Federica Rossetto, Valeria Blasi, Davide Massaro, Ilaria Castelli, Cristian Ricci, Simone Shamay-Tsoory, Antonella Marchetti, Francesca Baglio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Theory of Mind (ToM), a high-order human social cognition skill, is relevant for mental health and wellbeing and frequently impaired in many clinical conditions. To detect ToM difficulties, validated and standardized measures need to be adopted in clinical practice. The Yoni task provides a comprehensive evaluation of first-order, second-order, affective and cognitive mentalistic inferences. However, the Yoni task remains a time-demanding tool without normative data. To fill this gap, we explored the convergent and discriminant validity, the inter-item reliability and provided normative data of the Italian version of the Yoni task (98 items), and developed two short versions (48 and 36 items). For the validation, internal consistency and convergent/discriminant validity have been considered. Then, the effects of demographical variables on 98 item Yoni were explored, and normative data were provided. Our data demonstrated high reliability and a good convergent validity in all the Yoni versions. Then, two composite scores were proposed to obtain: 1) a global ToM level and 2) the balance between affective and cognitive ToM components, whose alteration represents a signature of several clinical conditions. The future standardization of the short versions of Yoni will allow a comprehensive and quick examination of ToM abilities, suitable for both research and clinical settings.

Original languageEnglish
JournalCurrent Psychology
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by 5x1000 funds - 2020, Italian Ministry of Health – Ricerca Corrente.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s).

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology (all)


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