Longitudinal Predictors of Coronavirus-Related PTSD among Young Adults from Poland, Germany, Slovenia, and Israel

Dominika Ochnik, Aleksandra M. Rogowska, Ana Arzenšek, Joy Benatov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The aim of this study was to reveal longitudinal predictors of coronavirus-related PTSD and the moderating roles of country, sex, age, and student status among young adults from Poland, Germany, Slovenia, and Israel. We included the following predictors: perceived stress, exposure to COVID-19, perceived impact of COVID-19 on well-being in socioeconomic status (PNIC-SES) and social relationships (PNIC-SR), fear of COVID-19, fear of vaccination, and trust in institutions. We conducted the study online among a representative sample of 1723 young adults aged 20–40 (M = 30.74, SD = 5.74) years in February 2021 (T1) and May–June 2021 (T2). We used McNemar’s χ2 and the paired samples Student’s t-test to test differences over time. We assessed the relationships between variables using Pearson’s correlation. We performed structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the associations between variables at T1 and T2. We used a lagged regression model to examine the causal influences between variables across different time points (T1 and T2). The results showed that all variables decreased over time, except exposure to COVID-19. The rates of infected, tested, and under-quarantine participants increased. The rates of those who lost a job and experi-enced worsening economic status decreased. The rate of hospitalized participants and those expe-riencing the loss of close ones did not change. Higher perceived stress, fear of COVID-19, fear of vaccination, and trust in institutions were significant longitudinal predictors of coronavirus-related PTSD regardless of country, sex, age, and student status. Institutions should provide more accurate programs for public health, so trust in institutions can be a protective and not a risk factor in future traumatic events.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7207
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Volume19
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The project “Mental health of young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland, Germany, Slovenia, and Israel: A longitudinal study” was co-financed by the Polish National Agency for Academic Exchange within the Urgency Grants program. A grant was awarded to the University of Technology in Katowice, Poland, and coordinated by Dr. Dominika Ochnik; decision number: PPN/GIN/2020/1/00023/DEC/01.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Keywords

  • coronavirus-related PTSD
  • COVID-19
  • mental health
  • trust in institutions
  • young adults

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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