Longitudinal and transversal resonant tunneling of interacting bosons in a two-dimensional Josephson junction

Anal Bhowmik, Ofir E. Alon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

We unravel the out-of-equilibrium quantum dynamics of a few interacting bosonic clouds in a two-dimensional asymmetric double-well potential at the resonant tunneling scenario. At the single-particle level of resonant tunneling, particles tunnel under the barrier from, typically, the ground-state in the left well to an excited state in the right well, i.e., states of different shapes and properties are coupled when their one-particle energies coincide. In two spatial dimensions, two types of resonant tunneling processes are possible, to which we refer to as longitudinal and transversal resonant tunneling. Longitudinal resonant tunneling implies that the state in the right well is longitudinally-excited with respect to the state in the left well, whereas transversal resonant tunneling implies that the former is transversely-excited with respect to the latter. We show that interaction between bosons makes resonant tunneling phenomena in two spatial dimensions profoundly rich, and analyze these phenomena in terms of the loss of coherence of the junction and development of fragmentation, and coupling between transverse and longitudinal degrees-of-freedom and excitations. To this end, a detailed analysis of the tunneling dynamics is performed by exploring the time evolution of a few physical quantities, namely, the survival probability, occupation numbers of the reduced one-particle density matrix, and the many-particle position, momentum, and angular-momentum variances. To accurately calculate these physical quantities from the time-dependent many-boson wavefunction, we apply a well-established many-body method, the multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree for bosons (MCTDHB), which incorporates quantum correlations exhaustively. By comparing the survival probabilities and variances at the mean-field and many-body levels of theory and investigating the development of fragmentation, we identify the detailed mechanisms of many-body longitudinal and transversal resonant tunneling in two dimensional asymmetric double-wells. In particular, we find that the position and momentum variances along the transversal direction are almost negligible at the longitudinal resonant tunneling, whereas they are substantial at the transversal resonant tunneling which is caused by the combination of the density and breathing mode oscillations. We show that the width of the interparticle interaction potential does not affect the qualitative physics of resonant tunneling dynamics, both at the mean-field and many-body levels. In general, we characterize the impact of the transversal and longitudinal degrees-of-freedom in the many-boson tunneling dynamics at the resonant tunneling scenarios.

Original languageEnglish
Article number627
Number of pages19
JournalScientific Reports
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the Israel Science Foundation (Grants No. 600/15 and 1516/19). AB acknowledges Sudip Kumar Haldar and Sunayana Dutta for some helpful discussions. Computation time on the High Performance Computing system Hive of the Faculty of Natural Sciences at University of Haifa, and the Hawk at the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) is gratefully acknowledged.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s).

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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