Eight olivine beads found at the Middle Chalcolithic site of Tel Tsaf (ca. 5,200-4,700 cal. BC), Jordan Valley, Israel, underscore a new facet of interregional exchange for this period. The current paper presents the olivine beads assemblage, its morphometric and technological characteristics, and chemical composition. The results of the chemical analysis suggest that all eight beads derive from the same source. By means of comparison with the chemical characteristics of known olivine sources, we argue for a northeastern African-western Arabian provenience and cautiously suggest Ethiopia as a probable origin. Finally, we discuss the significance of the assemblage, its possible origin, and the mechanisms that may have brought the beads to the site.
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