Lineage-matched versus mismatched influenza B vaccine effectiveness following seasons of marginal influenza B circulation

Itay Omer, Alina Rosenberg, Hanna Sefty, Rakefet Pando, Michal Mandelboim, Ella Mendelson, Lital Keinan-Boker, Aharona Glatman-Freedman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Several countries have recently transitioned from the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) to the quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (QIV) in order to outweigh influenza B vaccine-mismatch. However, few studies thus far evaluated its benefits versus the TIV in a systematic manner. Our objective was to compare the QIV VE with lineage-mismatched TIV VE. Methods: We estimated the 2015–2016, 2017–2018, 2019–2020 end-of season influenza B VE against laboratory-confirmed influenza-like illness (ILI) among community patients, using the test-negative design. VE was estimated for pre-determined age groups and for moving age intervals of 15 years. Results: Since 2011–2012 season, alternate seasons in Israel were dominated by influenza B circulation. Compared with the lineage-mismatched TIV used during the 2015–2016 and 2017–2018 seasons, the 2019–2020 QIV showed the highest all-ages VE, with VE estimates of 56.9 (95% CI 30.1 to 73.4), 16.5 (95% CI –22.5 to 43.1) and −25.8 (95% CI −85.3 to 14.6) for the 2019–2020, 2017–2018 and 2015–2016 seasons, respectively. The 2019–2020 VE point estimated were the highest for the 0.5–4, 5–17 and 18–44 years age groups and for more 15-year age intervals as compared to the other seasons. Conclusions: Our results support the rapid transition from the TIV to the QIV.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)880-885
Number of pages6
Issue number6
StatePublished - 7 Feb 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier Ltd


  • Influenza, human
  • Vaccine effectiveness
  • Vaccines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Veterinary
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Molecular Medicine
  • General Immunology and Microbiology


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