Harmful algal blooms in freshwater reservoirs became a steady phenomenon in recent decades, so instruments for monitoring water quality in real time are of high importance. Modern satellite remote sensing is a powerful technique for mapping large areas but cannot provide depth-resolved data on algal concentrations. As an alternative to satellite techniques, laser remote sensing is a perspective technique for depth-resolved studies of fresh or seawater. Recent progress in lasers and electronics makes it possible to construct compact and lightweight LiDARs (Light Detection and Ranging) that can be installed on small boats or drones. LiDAR sensing is an established technique; however, it is more common in studies of seas rather than freshwater reservoirs. In this study, we present an experimental verification of a compact LiDAR as an instrument for the shipborne depth profiling of chlorophyll concentration across the freshwater Lake Kinneret (Israel). Chlorophyll depth profiles of 3 m with a 1.5 m resolution were measured in situ, under sunlight conditions. A good correlation (R2 = 0.89) has been established between LiDAR signals and commercial algae profiler data. A non-monotonic algae depth distribution was observed along the boat route during daytime (Tiberias city–Jordan River mouth–Tiberias city). The impact of high algal concentration on water temperature laser remote sensing has been studied in detail to estimate the LiDAR capability of in situ simultaneous measurements of temperature and chlorophyll concentration.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by a grant of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation (075-15-2022-315) for the organization and development of a World-class research center “Photonics” and by Israel Science Foundation grant No. 946/20.
© 2022 by the authors.
- algal blooming
- chlorophyll-a fluorescence
- Lake Kinneret
- laser remote sensing
- water quality monitoring
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry
- Information Systems
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering