Language teacher preparation, induction and retention: unpacking two decades of research

Tziona Levi, Julia Schlam Salman, Lily Orland Barak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Lnd multilingual backgrounds. This also generally characterises preparation programmes that have been developed to prepare elementary and secondary school language teachers for increasingly globalised, pluralistic, interconnected classrooms. Despite variations, there is value in attempting to identify common denominators in research related to the preparation of such teachers. This paper surveys 20 years of research published in journals focusing on language learning and teaching. Content analysis and thematic analysis was performed to generate salient categories related to language teacher preparation, induction and retention. Five key themes emerged: reflective practice and its role in preparation programmes and induction; ongoing formal and informal support in the early years of teaching; teachers’ beliefs and their identity; pedagogical and content knowledge; and the sociocultural context of teaching. Despite the focus on journals devoted to language learning and teaching, findings overwhelmingly related to teacher preparation in general. We discuss these findings and then offer suggestions specifically for school L2 language teacher preparation, induction and retention with an emphasis on early career teachers. Such recommendations can guide language teacher preparation programmes as well as the professional trajectory of teachers in the field, ultimately increasing the chances of retention in the long term.

Original languageEnglish
JournalLanguage Learning Journal
StateAccepted/In press - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Association for Language Learning.


  • Language teacher preparation
  • induction
  • pedagogical content knowledge
  • retention
  • teacher beliefs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Language and Linguistics
  • Linguistics and Language


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