Lactuca georgica Grossh. is a wild species belonging to the secondary lettuce gene pool: additional evidence, obtained by KASP genotyping

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This work evaluated the genetic relationships among 442 single-seed descent accessions, representing eight Lactuca spp., including five wild Lactuca relatives (WLRs) (Lactuca georgica, L. altaica, L. saligna, L. serriola, L. aculeata), L. tuberosa, L. undulata, and the domesticated lettuce, L. sativa, 437 of them representing a core subset of the Institute of Evolution's Wild Lettuce Gene Bank (IoE's WLGB) collection. The analysis was performed by profiling 115 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers with the fluorescent KASP genotyping assay. KASP marker fragments were scored as either allele “A” or allele “B”, and then treated as bi-allelic data, but the dataset also included a relatively high number of U-scores, noting the absence of the specific sequence, that were treated as missing data. Often U-scores were specific for a certain species. Data analysis of the five WLRs showed that allele frequencies of 103 (97.2%) out of 106 differentiating loci varied significantly among the species, where 59.7% of the KASP marker diversity was between species. A neighbor-network analysis involving samples of the five WLRs and a single L. sativa cv. clearly clustered all 430 samples in accordance with their taxonomic determination. These results obtained from multiple complementary analyses of large natural populations and individuals, question the assignment of L. georgica to the primary lettuce gene pool. Together with our previous results obtained by using TRAP markers and hybridization experiments, we conclude that L. georgica is a constituent of the secondary lettuce gene pool. Our analyses shed also light on the proper placement of L. altaica.

Original languageEnglish
JournalGenetic Resources and Crop Evolution
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
AB wishes to thank Rijk Zwaan B.V. for providing greenhouse facilities, support in assessment and cultivation of the sampled Lactuca accessions, as well for providing the KASP data points. Performing the Neighbor-Network and Structure analysis by Dr. Lucie Vaculná and Dr. Miloslav Kitner, Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Palacký University in Olomouc, Olomouc-Holice, Czech Republic, are gratefully acknowledged. Financial support by the Research Authority and calculating the uncorrected p-distance values by Mrs. Efrat Yaskil of the Statistics Consulting Unit, University of Haifa, Israel, are acknowledged. I would also like to thank Dr. Roi Ben-David, Institute of Plant Sciences, Agriculture Research Organization (ARO), Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel, for his valuable comments on the first draft version of this manuscript.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V.


  • Conservation
  • Gene bank
  • Genetic diversity
  • Genotyping platform
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)
  • Wild Lactuca relatives (WLRs)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Genetics
  • Plant Science


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