Labeling schemes for tree representation

Reuven Cohen, Pierre Fraigniaud, David Ilcinkas, Amos Korman, David Peleg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper deals with compact label-based representations for trees. Consider an n-node undirected connected graph G with a predefined numbering on the ports of each node. The all-ports tree labeling L all gives each node v of G a label containing the port numbers of all the tree edges incident to v. The upward tree labeling L up labels each node v by the number of the port leading from v to its parent in the tree. Our measure of interest is the worst case and total length of the labels used by the scheme, denoted M up (T) and S up (T) for L up and M all (T) and S all (T) for L all . The problem studied in this paper is the following: Given a graph G and a predefined port labeling for it, with the ports of each node v numbered by 0,..., deg∈(v)-1, select a rooted spanning tree for G minimizing (one of) these measures. We show that the problem is polynomial for M up (T), S up (T) and S all (T) but NP-hard for M all (T) (even for 3-regular planar graphs). We show that for every graph G and port labeling there exists a spanning tree T for which S up (T)=O(nlog∈log∈n). We give a tight bound of O(n) in the cases of complete graphs with arbitrary labeling and arbitrary graphs with symmetric port labeling. We conclude by discussing some applications for our tree representation schemes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Labeling scheme
  • Spanning tree
  • Tree representation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Computer Science
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics


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