Kinematics of reaching movements in a 2-D virtual environment in adults with and without stroke

Dario G. Liebermann, Sigal Berman, Patrice L. Weiss, Mindy F. Levin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Virtual reality environments are increasingly being used for upper limb rehabilitation in poststroke patients. Our goal was to determine if arm reaching movements made in a 2-D video-capture virtual reality environment are similar to those made in a comparable physical environment. We compared arm and trunk kinematics for reaches made with the right, dominant arm to three targets (14 trials per target) in both environments by 16 adults with right poststroke hemiparesis and by eight healthy age-matched controls. Movement kinematics were recorded with a three-camera optoelectronic system at 100 samples/s. Reaching movements made by both control and stroke subjects were affected by viewing the targets in the video-capture 2-D virtual environment. Movements were slower, shorter, less straight, less accurate and involved smaller ranges of shoulder and elbow joint excursions for target reaches in the virtual environment compared to the physical environment in all subjects. Thus, there was a decrease in the overall movement quality for movements made in the 2-D virtual environment. This suggests that 2-D video-capture virtual reality environments should be used with caution when the goal of the rehabilitation program is to improve the quality of movement patterns of the upper limb.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6268348
Pages (from-to)778-787
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2012

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Manuscript received February 20, 2011; revised August 15, 2011, November 22, 2011; accepted June 04, 2012. Date of publication August 14, 2012; date of current version November 02, 2012. This work was supported in part by an International Collaborative Grant from REPAR-FRSQ (Quebec) and in part by the Israeli Ministry of Health #3-00000-4227.


  • Arm movement
  • kinematics
  • recovery
  • rehabilitation
  • virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience
  • Internal Medicine
  • Biomedical Engineering


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