Kadesh barnea: A reevaluation of its archaeology and history

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The article reevaluates the archaeology and history of Kadesh Barnea in view of some recent publications. It argues that the finds at the site cover the entire sequence of the Iron Age and later, up to the Persian period. The main conclusions are: (1) Substratum 4c represents the earliest occupation, which dates to the Iron I in the 12th to 10th centuries BCE. The radiocarbon results from seed samples that ostensibly belong to Substratum 4b provide dates in the 10th century BCE, and should be affiliated with this settlement. (2) Substratum 4b is a settlement (rather than an oval fortress) that features at least two phases. It covers the entire sequence of the Iron IIA, between the late 10th and early 8th century BCE. (3) Strata 3–2 feature the remains of a single rectangular fortress with a solid wall built as a foundation for a system of casemates. This fortress was built in the second half of the 8th century, with the Assyrian take-over of the region, and continued to function until ca. 600 BCE. It features three construction phases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)111-125
Number of pages15
JournalTel Aviv
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jun 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • IRON I
  • IRON iia
  • KADESH barnea
  • Negev
  • Radiocarbon

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Archaeology
  • Cultural Studies
  • History
  • Archaeology


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