Judgments of learning as memory modifiers

Nicholas C. Soderstrom, Colin T. Clark, Vered Halamish, Elizabeth Ligon Bjork

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A frequent procedure used to study how individuals monitor their own learning is to collect judgments of learning (JOLs) during acquisition, considered to be important, in part, because such judgments are assumed to guide how individuals allocate their future learning resources. In such research, however, a tacit assumption is frequently made: Namely, that asking for such metacognitive judgments does not affect the learning process per se. In 3 experiments, the present research addressed the accuracy of this assumption and tested a possible account-based on aspects of Koriat's cue-utilization approach to JOLs (Koriat, 1997) and de Winstanley, Bjork, and Bjork's (1996) transfer-appropriate multifactor account of generation effects-for why the mere act of making JOLs might enhance later memory for the information so judged. Potential implications of the present findings for the future conduction of research using metacognitive measures as well as for students studying for exams is discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)553-558
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2015
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014 American Psychological Association.


  • Judgments of learning
  • Memory
  • Metacognition
  • Metamemory
  • Monitoring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Language and Linguistics
  • Linguistics and Language


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