Job Demand-Control-Support and diabetes risk: The moderating role of self-efficacy

Sharon Toker, Ifat Gavish, Michal Biron

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Work-related stressors, including high demands and low control, play a significant role in the aetiology of diabetes. Nevertheless, most studies focus on main effects, and few consider individual differences that may moderate the stress-health association. Drawing from the Job Demands-Control--Support (JDC-S) model, this study addresses this gap by testing how baseline levels of JDC-S affect an increase in two risk factors for diabetes-glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG)-and by investigating the moderating role of self-efficacy. Participants (N = 1618) were Israeli employees who attended two consecutive routine health examinations. All were free of diabetes at baseline. JDC-S and self-efficacy were assessed at baseline (T1), and HbA1C and FPG were assessed at T1 and T2. Data were analysed with logistic and linear regressions, controlling for well-established diabetes risk factors. High demands and low support predicted an increase in HbA1C and FPG. In addition, high self-efficacy interacted with high demands and with low control in the prediction of an increase in HbA1C and FPG. Although employees with high self-efficacy might function well at work, overloading them may harm their physical health. Similarly, incongruence between employees' sense of ability and the control given to them at work may result in physical impairment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)711-724
Number of pages14
JournalEuropean Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2013

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Correspondence should be addressed to Sharon Toker, Faculty of Management, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv, Israel 69978. The authors sincerely acknowledge the invaluable assistance of Arie Shirom, Samuel Melamed, Shlomo Berliner and Itzhak Shapira. This study is part of the Tel Aviv Medical Center Inflammation Survey (TAMCIS) and was supported by a grant 788/09 from the Israel Science Foundation (ISF).


  • Diabetes
  • Glucose
  • HbA1C
  • Job-Demand-Control-Support
  • Self-efficacy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management


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