Interrelationships among vertical and horizontal collectivism, modesty, and self-enhancement

Jenny Kurman, N. Sriram

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The study investigated the relationship among self-enhancement, modesty, and vertical and horizontal collectivism-individualism. High school participants from three groups were surveyed: A Singaporean sample (n = 130), high on vertical collectivism; an Israeli kibbutz sample (n = 163), high on horizontal collectivism; and an urban individualist Israeli control sample (n = 144). Self-report of modesty was highest and self-enhancement was lowest among Singaporeans, whereas kibbutz and urban Israelis showed no differences on these measures. Path analyses revealed that modesty was positively related to vertical collectivism, which emphasizes group over self needs, Modesty was negatively related to horizontal individualism, which emphasizes development of a unique self-identity. Horizontal collectivism was not related to modesty or self-enhancement. Modesty was the strongest predictor of academic self-enhancement, other significant predictors being cultural origin and vertical individualism. Modesty was the strongest predictor of self-criticism and other significant predictors included cultural origin and vertical individualism and collectivism.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)71-86
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2002

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Cultural Studies
  • Anthropology


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