Integrating Epanet and FIWARE for Development of Water Distribution System Digital Twins

Chris Sweetapple, Elad Salomons, Franck Le Gall, Ahmed Abid, Lydia Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, Albert S. Chen, Joep van den Broeke

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Digital Twins (DTs) have significant potential in the area of water distribution system (WDS) management. However, development of DTs can be complex, with the need for any hydraulic and/or quality model to be constantly paired with data and information from multiple sources in the physical world. Transmission, conversion, validation, storage and protection of this data are all important issues, and are currently complicated by a lack of standardization. However, standardization, along with interoperability and integration are fundamental features of a successful DT. This research, therefore, aims to provide a flexible solution for integrating hydraulic and quality WDS models with heterogeneous data sources by integrating the WDS simulation toolkit, OWA-EPANET 2.2, with the cloud-based context information platform, FIWARE. To achieve this, a new open source ‘Water Network Management’ FIWARE data model is first developed to enable management of all network data in a standardized, NGSI-LD format, based on JSON-LD serialization. Secondly, an interface is developed to: (a) translate existing EPANET model data into the requisite NGSI-LD format; (b) post this to a context information broker; (c) retrieve all data necessary to generate an up-to-date network model for simulation (capturing real-time network data supplied to the context broker from other sources); and (d) as and when required, run hydraulic and quality simulations of the network. Lastly, this FIWARE-integrated implementation of EPANET is demonstrated using a small case study WDS from the South West of England, where it utilises real-time data available from 91 smart meters in the network.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSpringer Water
PublisherSpringer Nature
Number of pages6
StatePublished - 2022
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

NameSpringer Water
ISSN (Print)2364-6934
ISSN (Electronic)2364-8198

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.


  • Digital twin
  • Real-time
  • Water distribution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography
  • Aquatic Science
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)


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