Individualism and collectivism: In search of a product or process?

R. C. Tripathi, Uriel Leviatan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Realo (2003) argues that Estonian society in public discourse is construed differently compared to the way it is in academic discourse. We suggest that such discrepancies arise because of the processes of social categorization, and also because scholars have focused more on universal attributes of individualism/collectivism (I/C) than on cultural processes. Our comments also draw attention to several theoretical and methodological problems associated with I/C.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)79-88
Number of pages10
JournalCulture and Psychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2003


  • Autostereotype
  • Categorization
  • Interdependent self
  • Meaning making
  • Social identity
  • Social representation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Cultural Studies
  • Anthropology
  • Sociology and Political Science


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