The archaeological site of Shivta is located in the Negev Desert in southern Israel, forty-three kilometers southwest of the city of Beer-Sheva. Shivta became a large Byzantine village with approximately two thousand inhabitants during the fifth century CE and reached its peak during the sixth and seventh centuries. Fol-lowing the Islamic occupation of the area, it dramatically declined during the eighth and ninth centuries and never recovered (Negev 1974; Segal 1983, 1985; Avni 2014; Tepper, Weissbrod, and Bar-Oz 2015; Tepper et al. 2018).
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