Tunneling in a many-body system appears as one of the novel implications of quantum physics, in which particles move in space under an otherwise classically-forbidden potential barrier. Here, we theoretically describe the quantum dynamics of the tunneling phenomenon of a few intricate bosonic clouds in a closed system of a two-dimensional symmetric double-well potential. We examine how the inclusion of the transverse direction, orthogonal to the junction of the double-well, can intervene in the tunneling dynamics of bosonic clouds. We use a well-known many-body numerical method, called the multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree for bosons (MCTDHB) method. MCTDHB allows one to obtain accurately the time-dependent many-particle wavefunction of the bosons which in principle entails all the information of interest about the system under investigation. We analyze the tunneling dynamics by preparing the initial state of the bosonic clouds in the left well of the double-well either as the ground, longitudinally or transversely excited, or a vortex state. We unravel the detailed mechanism of the tunneling process by analyzing the evolution in time of the survival probability, depletion and fragmentation, and the many-particle position, momentum, and angular-momentum expectation values and their variances. As a general rule, all objects lose coherence while tunneling through the barrier and the states which include transverse excitations do so faster. In particular for the later states, we show that even when the transverse direction is seemingly frozen, prominent many-body dynamics in a two-dimensional bosonic Josephson junction occurs. Implications are briefly discussed.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the Israel Science Foundation (Grants nos. 600/15 and 1516/19). Computation time on the High Performance Computing system Hive of the Faculty of Natural Sciences at the University of Haifa and computational resources at the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) are gratefully acknowledged.
© 2020, The Author(s).
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