Immigration has changed the demographic composition, the ethnic fabric, and the social structure of many west European traditional nation-states. Recruitment of guest workers coupled with arrival of labour migrants, ex-colonials, undocumented immigrants, refugees, and asylum seekers have significantly changed the ethnic composition of the population of many countries, towns, and communities in Europe. In the Scandinavian countries, most immigrants came from neighbouring countries, but recent flows include many migrants from Pakistan and the former Soviet Union. The flows of immigrants to different European countries have significant consequences for the ethnic homogeneity of the national population. Most immigrants are attracted to cities and urban centres where economic opportunities are abundant and where demand for workforce is high. Countries differ not only by their welfare state regime but also in the immigrants' integration policies that they implement. The presence of immigrants in Europe has prompted negative attitudes and opposition to immigration among large segments of the population.
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ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Social Sciences (all)