In recent years, the role of top-down expectations on perception has been extensively researched within the framework of predictive coding. However, less attention has been given to the different sources of expectations, how they differ, and how they interact. In this article, we examined the effects of informative hints on perceptual experience and how these interact with repetition-based expectations to create a long-lasting effect. Over 7 experiments, we used verbal hints and multiple presentations of ambiguous 2-tone images. We found that vividness ratings increased from 1 presentation to the next, even after the object in the image had been identified. In addition, vividness ratings significantly increased when images were introduced with a hint, and this boost was greater for more detailed hints. However, the initial increase in vividness did not always carry over to the next presentation. When recognition of the image in the presentation was hard because of memory load, inconsistent presentation, or noise level of the image, the initial advantage in vividness was attenuated. This was most apparent when participants were primed with a grayscale version of the 2-tone image. A computational model based on evidence accumulation was able to recover these patterns of perceptual experience, suggesting that the effect of hints is short lived if it cannot be encoded in memory for future presentations. This notion highlights the different contributions of attention, memory, and their interactions on forming expectations for perception.
|Number of pages||16|
|Journal||Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance|
|State||Published - Aug 2020|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was carried as part of the ‘Cambridge New Directions in the Study of the Mind’ project, led by Tim Crane and supported by a John Templeton Foundation grant (Grant ID: 51679). The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the John Templeton Foundation.
© 2017 American Psychological Association.
- Top-down effects
- Color Perception/physiology
- Recognition, Psychology/physiology
- Young Adult
- Pattern Recognition, Visual/physiology
- Anticipation, Psychological/physiology
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
- Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
- Behavioral Neuroscience