Hyper-Past Evils: A Reply to Bogdan V. Faul

Tyron Goldschmidt, Samuel Lebens

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A reply to Bogdan V. Faul's "Can God Promise Us a New Past? A Response to Lebens and Goldschmidt."In this reply we clarify why it is that we regard a scene-changing theory of time to be an improvement over presentism from a theological point of view. We present two benefits: A scene changing theory allows God (1) to improve the past and it allows him (2) to give free will to human beings whilst ensuring that they hyper-will never have misused it. More generally, the scene-changing theory when compared to presentism has the more compelling account of the badness of past evils.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)374-377
Number of pages4
JournalOpen Theology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Tyron Goldschmidt and Samuel Lebens, published by De Gruyter 2020.


  • God
  • hypertime
  • necessary evil
  • philosophy of time
  • the problem of evil

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Religious studies


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