Hope and Fear of Threats as Predictors of Coping with Two Major Adversities, the COVID-19 Pandemic and an Armed Conflict

Hadas Marciano, Yohanan Eshel, Shaul Kimhi, Bruria Adini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Coping with adversities has been explained by two major theories: the fear appeal theory and the hope theory. The predictability of hope with that of fear of threats as variables explaining coping with two major adversities, the COVID-19 pandemic and an armed conflict, was compared. Participants were approached via an internet panel company in two different times: (1) January 2021 (N = 699; age range: 18–82; 330 women), during the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Israel and (2) May 2021 (N = 647; age range: 19–83; 297 women), during an armed conflict between Israel and Hamas. Participants self-reported on hope, four perceived threats (health, economics, security, and political), well-being, individual resilience, societal resilience, and distress symptoms (anxiety and depression symptoms) were collected. Hope was found as a more consistent and stronger predictor of the following expressions of coping: well-being, individual and societal resilience, depression, and anxiety. It can be concluded that hope is a better and more consistent predictor of coping, as well as coping suppressing expressions, compared with fear of threats, in the face of the current adversities. The innovative nature of these findings, the importance of hope as a coping supporter, and the need for replicating these innovative results are discussed and elaborated.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1123
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number3
StatePublished - 20 Jan 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Anxiety
  • Armed conflict
  • COVID-19
  • Depression
  • Distress
  • Hope
  • Perceived threats
  • Resilience

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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