Hofstede's dimensions of culture in international marketing studies

Ana Maria Soares, Minoo Farhangmehr, Aviv Shoham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Growth of research addressing the relationship between culture and consumption is exponential [Ogden D., Ogden J. and Schau HJ. Exploring the impact of culture and acculturation on consumer purchase decisions: toward a microcultural perspective. Academy Marketing Science Review 2004;3.]. However culture is an elusive concept posing considerable difficulties for cross-cultural research [Clark T. International Marketing and national character: A review and proposal for an integrative theory. Journal of Marketing 1990; Oct.: 66-79.; Dawar N., Parker P. and Price L. A cross-cultural study of interpersonal information exchange. Journal of International Business Studies 1996; 27(3): 497-516.; Manrai L. and Manrai A. Current issues in the cross-cultural and cross-national consumer research. Journal of International Consumer Marketing 1996; 8 (3/4): 9-22.; McCort D. and Malhotra NK. Culture and consumer behavior: Toward an understanding of cross-cultural consumer behavior in International Marketing. Journal of International Consumer Marketing 1993; 6 (2): 91-127.; Nasif EG., Al-Daeaj H., Ebrahimi B. and Thibodeaux M. Methodological problems in cross-cultural research: An updated review. Management International Review 1991; 31 (1): 79-91.; Lenartowicz T. and Roth K. A framework for culture assessment. Journal of International Business Studies 1999; 30 (4): 781-98.]. This article examines different approaches to conceptualising and operationalizing culture in marketing studies. The article discusses the advantages of using cultural dimensions - in particular Hofstede's values. The article proposes a three-step approach to operationalize culture including nationality, Hofstede's cultural dimensions and measuring culture at the individual level.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)277-284
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Business Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2007


  • Cross-cultural studies
  • Cultural dimensions
  • Culture
  • Hofstede

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Marketing


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