Hindsight wisdom outcome knowledge and the evaluation of decisions

Raanan Lipshitz, Dalya Barak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study examined the effects of outcome quality (success vs. failure) and norm conflict on the evaluation of decisions. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) Outcome quality affects the perceived congruence of the decision with normative expectations, the perceived quality of the decision process, and the ascription of causality to the decision maker. (2) Negative outcomes have stronger impact on the evaluation of decisions than positive outcomes. (3) The influence of outcome quality is enhanced by norm conflict and reduced by norm clarity. Officers in the Israel Defense Force evaluated six versions of two different cases of decision making in military contexts. Hypotheses 1 and 2 were confirmed. Hypothesis 3 was confirmed only with respect to vicarious learning, that is, subjects' choice of action given the decision maker's action and its consequences.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)105-125
Number of pages21
JournalActa Psychologica
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1995

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)


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