Heart breaking Work: Subtypes of Heavy Work Investment (HWI) and Relative Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

Raphael Snir, Itzhak Harpaz, Liron Inchi, Shlomo Segev, Maya Yakir, Noam Glick, Gadi Segal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study tested the 10-year cardiovascular risk difference between subtypes of heavy work investment (HWI) among 244 workers who came to a medical center for periodic check-ups. Relying on Snir and Harpaz’s (2012) model of HWI, four subtypes of heavy work investors (two dispositional subtypes-the workaholics and the work-devoted; and two situational subtypes-the organization-directed and the needy) were compared. Common full-time workers served as a reference group. The results showed that while workaholics are 3.70 times more likely to be at a high risk of developing a cardiovascular disease than common full-time workers, the work-devoted are 8.31 times more likely. We suggest that the work-devoted literally “take their work to heart.”.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)325-340
Number of pages16
JournalNorth American Journal of Psychology
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The research was supported by the National Insurance Institute of Israel. This contribution is gratefully acknowledged.

Publisher Copyright:


  • cardiovascular risk (CVR)
  • common full-time workers
  • Framingham Risk Score
  • Heavy work investment (HWI) subtypes
  • work devotion
  • workaholism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Psychology (all)


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