Harnessing anti-inflammatory pathways and macrophage nano delivery to treat inflammatory and fibrotic disorders

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Targeting specific organs and cell types using nanotechnology and sophisticated delivery methods has been at the forefront of applicative biomedical sciences lately. Macrophages are an appealing target for immunomodulation by nanodelivery as they are heavily involved in various aspects of many diseases and are highly plastic in their nature. Their continuum of functional “polarization” states has been a research focus for many years yielding a profound understanding of various aspects of these cells. The ability of monocyte-derived macrophages to metamorphose from pro-inflammatory to reparative and consequently to pro-resolving effectors has raised significant interest in its therapeutic potential. Here, we briefly survey macrophages' ontogeny and various polarization phenotypes, highlighting their function in the inflammation-resolution shift. We review their inducing mediators, signaling pathways, and biological programs with emphasis on the nucleic acid sensing-IFN-I axis. We also portray the polarization spectrum of macrophages and the characteristics of their transition between different subtypes. Finally, we highlighted different current drug delivery methods for targeting macrophages with emphasis on nanotargeting that might lead to breakthroughs in the treatment of wound healing, bone regeneration, autoimmune, and fibrotic diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Article number115204
JournalAdvanced Drug Delivery Reviews
StatePublished - Apr 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 Elsevier B.V.


  • Apoptosis
  • Efferocytosis
  • Macrophage reprogramming
  • Resolution of Inflammation
  • Targeted nanomedicine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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