Handwriting Proficiency Screening Questionnaire for Children (HPSQ-C): Development, reliability, and validity

Sara Rosenblum, Liat Gafni-Lachter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


OBJECTIVE. To adapt the Handwriting Proficiency Screening Questionnaire (HPSQ), previously designated for adults, into a children's self-report version (the HPSQ for Children, or HPSQ-C) and to examine its reliability and validity. METHOD. Participants included 230 children ages 7-14 yr from regular schools in Israel. The questionnaire's content validity, internal consistency, and concurrent and construct validity were assessed. RESULTS. The tool demonstrated good internal consistency (α = .77). We found a significant moderate correlation between final HPSQ-C scores and the HPSQ, r = .51, p < .001, establishing the HPSQ-C's concurrent validity. Construct validity was also confirmed. Results demonstrated that the HPSQ-C significantly distinguished between children with and without handwriting deficiencies on the basis of measures of handwriting product (Hebrew Handwriting Evaluation) and handwriting process (Computerized Penmanship Evaluation Tool). CONCLUSION. The HPSQ-C is suitable for identification of handwriting deficiency among school-aged children and is appropriate for varied academic and clinical uses.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6903220030
JournalAmerican Journal of Occupational Therapy
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 May 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Occupational Therapy


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